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Sumber Pembiayaan dan Pinjaman

Ketika sebuah perusahaan dibentuk, awalnya, keuangan dilakukan oleh individu secara pribadi atau dengan keuntungan yang diinvestasikan kembali. Banyak investor tidak mau mengambil risiko terkait dengan perusahaan yang tidak dikenal. Seiring pertumbuhan organisasi, sumber keuangan yang dibuat pada awalnya mungkin menjadi kurang untuk berinvestasi dalam investasi besar yang diperlukan untuk mengembangkan bisnis lebih lanjut, yang berada di luar sumber daya perusahaan atau individu. Dengan demikian, kebutuhan untuk membiayai dari sumber lain muncul.

Ada tiga kelompok sumber keuangan; Keuangan jangka pendek (keuangan ini untuk jangka waktu sampai dengan satu tahun), keuangan jangka menengah (yaitu dari jangka waktu antara satu tahun sampai dengan lima tahun), dan keuangan jangka panjang (yang dari jangka waktu di atas lima tahun)

Keuangan Jangka Pendek

Keuangan Modal Kerja

Modal kerja dihitung sebagai aset lancar perusahaan dikurangi kewajiban lancar. Jumlah surplus menunjukkan seberapa banyak perusahaan telah melebihi aset lancar di tangan. Aset lancar bisnis termasuk saham yang dimiliki, debitur, investasi jangka pendek, dan uang tunai di bank. Sedangkan kewajiban lancar termasuk kewajiban jangka pendek perusahaan, yang harus dibayar perusahaan dalam waktu satu tahun. Akibatnya, modal kerja bisnis adalah sejumlah modal yang dapat disediakan perusahaan dalam jangka pendek.

Cerukan Bank

Bank adalah sumber keuangan dan pinjaman paling umum yang tersedia untuk organisasi bisnis mana pun; bank menyediakan uang sebagai cerukan atau pinjaman. Cerukan adalah sumber keuangan yang ditawarkan oleh bank kliring terutama. Sumber-sumber ini memiliki keunggulan bersifat fleksibel dalam artian perusahaan dapat menarik modal dengan batasan yang telah disepakati sebelumnya. Bunga cerukan dihitung setiap hari di atas jumlah terutang dan biasanya 2 hingga 3 persen lebih tinggi di atas suku bunga utama.

Keuangan Jangka Menengah

Keuangan Rumah

Rumah pembiayaan beroperasi sebagai entitas bisnis yang menyalurkan dana ke segmen komersial, industri, dan konsumen dalam berbagai bentuk, seperti leasing, sewa beli, dan perjanjian pinjaman. Seperti bank komersial lainnya, rumah keuangan memperoleh modal dengan menerima setoran modal dari pelanggan, termasuk masalah komersial dan industri. Lembaga keuangan juga meminjam jumlah dari bank serta dari rumah keuangan lainnya.

Jual dan Sewa kembali

Ketika sebuah bisnis menghadapi kesulitan keuangan atau memiliki kebutuhan keuangan tambahan untuk berinvestasi dalam peluang pertumbuhan di masa depan, mungkin mereka perlu menjual beberapa aset mereka. Jika perusahaan memiliki properti hak milik atau memiliki hak sewa yang diperpanjang, perusahaan dapat meningkatkan modalnya dengan menjual atau menggadaikan properti dengan harga pasar. Penjualan dan penyewaan kembali adalah cara lain bagi perusahaan untuk menghindari penjualan dan hipotek dan tetap meningkatkan keuangan sebanyak mungkin terhadap properti perusahaan.

Pinjaman bank

Pinjaman bank dianggap sebagai keuangan jangka menengah yang dicapai untuk situasi, yang membutuhkan keuangan selama lebih dari satu tahun dan sampai lima tahun. Suku bunga pinjaman berjangka umumnya lebih tinggi daripada suku bunga cerukan. Biaya sumber pembiayaan ini lebih tinggi daripada sumber lain karena bank membebankan bunga atas modal yang disediakan dan biaya set-up juga dibebankan oleh bank, yang dapat menjadi 0,5% dari jumlah yang dipinjamkan.

Keuangan Jangka Panjang

Tiga sumber keuangan jangka panjang adalah penerbitan saham, laba ditahan, dan surat utang.

Penerbitan saham

Organisasi bisnis dapat meningkatkan tambahan yang dibiayai dengan penerbitan saham baru; itu dapat dilakukan kepada publik atau bahkan kepada pemegang saham saat ini. Prosedur penerbitan saham baru bisa menjadi proses yang mahal, dan oleh karena itu dibatasi hanya untuk menaikkan jumlah yang cukup besar untuk mengimbangi biaya pembiayaan.

Pendapatan yang disimpan

Salah satu sumber pembiayaan yang cukup besar adalah penggunaan laba ditahan . Sumber pembiayaan ini dianggap paling sesuai jika tersedia karena tidak memerlukan pembayaran beban bunga.

Surat utang

Istilah surat utang memiliki dua arti yang berbeda karena perbedaan konsep Amerika Serikat dan Inggris. Di AS, surat utang berarti utang tanpa jaminan, sedangkan itu mengacu pada saham terjamin di Inggris. Bagaimanapun, surat utang itu adalah salam tertulis dari utang jangka panjang dengan jangka waktu lebih dari lima belas tahun.

Sumber: https://www.completecontroller.com

Artikel Terkait: Tips Meminta Kenaikan Gaji

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Tips Meminta Kenaikan Gaji

Meminta kenaikan gaji adalah sesuatu yang sudah mengakar dalam budaya, tetapi di sini kita masih “takut” meminta sesuatu yang pasti sesuai dengan kita jika kita telah melakukan pekerjaan kita dengan baik. Mari kita lihat apa yang dapat Anda lakukan jika Anda ingin bertanya kepada atasan Anda bahwa sudah waktunya untuk menaikkan gaji Anda.

  1. Pilih waktu untuk meminta kenaikan gaji

Hal pertama yang harus Anda lakukan adalah menemukan waktu yang tepat. Jika Anda telah berada di perusahaan untuk sementara waktu, Anda sudah tahu apakah itu bekerja dengan baik atau tidak, dan Anda bahkan akan tahu bagaimana mendeteksi tanda-tanda yang menunjukkan jika Anda berada di saat kemakmuran atau jika masalah akan datang.

  1. Ikuti protokol internal

Kinerja Anda mungkin sangat bagus sehingga Anda layak mendapatkan kenaikan gaji . Tetapi jika Anda memintanya secara tidak tepat atau kepada seseorang yang tidak memiliki kapasitas pengambilan keputusan tentang masalah ini, permintaan Anda mungkin akan gagal.

  1. Persiapkan pameran Anda

Tentunya di perusahaan Anda, mereka sudah tahu betapa berharganya Anda, tetapi jika Anda akan meminta kenaikan gaji, Anda harus “menjual” sedikit, menyoroti semua kebaikan yang telah Anda sumbangkan dan yang dapat Anda sumbangkan.

  1. Siapkan dokumentasinya

Seperti yang baru saja kami tunjukkan ketika berbicara dengan atasan Anda, tidak ada tentang melihat “potongan” dengan skrip untuk mempertahankan argumen Anda . Tetapi apa yang harus Anda miliki dan tunjukkan kepada lawan bicara Anda adalah dokumen yang dapat membantu argumen Anda.

  1. Jangan hanya fokus pada diri sendiri

Jelas bahwa jika Anda akan meminta kenaikan gaji, percakapan akan berputar di sekitar Anda, tetapi Anda tidak boleh lupa untuk menghargai perusahaan.

Biarkan atasan Anda melihat bahwa Anda merasa nyaman dengan pekerjaan Anda dan bahwa Anda menghargai apa yang diberikan perusahaan kepada Anda. Justru karena apa yang Anda sumbangkan ke perusahaan dan apa yang dia berikan kepada Anda, Anda ingin hubungan ini menjadi jangka panjang. Kenaikan gaji akan membantu memperkuat hubungan itu.

  1. Bertanya tanpa menuntut dan tanpa menentukan

Jika Anda telah memutuskan untuk berani dan mengambil langkah untuk meminta kenaikan gaji, jangan mundur saat meminta, tetapi lakukan dengan bijaksana. Para ahli menyarankan untuk tidak meminta angka tertentu. Alih-alih meminta sejumlah uang, usulkan kepada lawan bicara Anda revisi ke atas dari kisaran gaji.

Kabar baik tentang meminta kenaikan gaji

Laporan Wall Street Journal tahun 2019 mengungkapkan pertumbuhan upah Amerika akan meningkat tahun depan karena banyak ekonom memperkirakan pasar tenaga kerja yang kompetitif akan terus menaikkan gaji karyawan. Menurut peramal sektor swasta baru-baru ini, sekitar 63,6% upah akan meningkat tahun depan, dan 5,5% upah akan naik dengan cepat dan substansial.

Pekerja yang memiliki pendapatan $ 150.000 atau lebih dari itu menerima jumlah waktu yang diminta, 70%. Tingkat itu adalah 25% dibandingkan dengan mereka yang menghasilkan $10.000 hingga $20.000 setiap tahun. Laporan penelitian PayScale (data kompensasi dan perusahaan perangkat lunak) memperkirakan jajak pendapat lebih dari 160.000 orang.

Menurut survei terhadap 40% pekerja, mereka mendapat kenaikan gaji dengan rasio yang tepat seperti yang mereka minta. Tapi, sisanya 31% orang mengklaim bahwa mereka mendapat lebih sedikit saat mereka memintanya. Keterbatasan anggaran memaksa orang untuk meminta kenaikan gaji. Keterbatasan anggaran adalah alasan yang sebagian besar responden tidak percaya.

Mayoritas pengusaha hanya mempertimbangkan permintaan kenaikan . Tidak ada kenaikan gaji, bahkan untuk karyawan yang dihargai. Di dunia yang penuh dengan talenta, retensi karyawan menjadi perhatian utama sekitar 66% organisasi. Rasio ini dibandingkan dengan tingkat 59% untuk tahun 2018. Tingkat pergantian pasar yang kuat telah meningkat sesuai dengan keyakinan 47% dari para pemimpin SDM dan bisnis.

Meminta kenaikan gaji itu menakutkan

Permintaan semacam itu agak menakutkan apakah Anda telah melakukan perencanaan yang efektif. Menjadi omong kosong ketika Anda meminta kenaikan gaji tanpa perencanaan dan persiapan. Juga, Anda kehilangan kesempatan terbaik untuk mendapatkan persetujuan untuk kenaikan gaji. Akibatnya, majikan mendapat kesempatan untuk mengabaikan permintaan ini. Dia tidak akan pernah mau berdiskusi dengan Anda lagi kecuali Anda berkontribusi pada pekerjaan Anda atau sesuatu berubah di tempat kerja.

Sumber: https://www.completecontroller.com

Artikel Terkait: Sumber Pembiayaan dan Pinjaman

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Computer integrated manufacturing system

Scheduling of a computer integrated manufacturing system: A simulation study, In modern industrial settings, considering the tight competitive market, efficiency and superior performance are critical factors for companies to address.One approach that companies have taken in this regard is to increase the level of automation and computerization of their production system (Cagliano & Spina, 2000; Nagalingam & Lin, 1999; Theodorou & Florou, 2008; Tseng, 2004).Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) and computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems are examples of such approaches. A CIM system is defined as a system that focuses on the computer as the focal point of control of the factory, and covers the computerization of the fabrication and assembly processes, as well as information flow for production control, quality, maintenance, material handling, and inventory control in a completely integrated system (Asfahl, 1992).An FMS “takes advantage of the flexibility of the robots, NC machine tools, industrial logic controllers and microprocessors” to create an overall flexible system (Asfahl, 1992).Flexible manufacturing systems are increasingly being used in manufacturing for their advantages of flexibility, quality, reduced labor and inventory cost in the era of continuous improvements and frequent turnaround initiatives.However the main disadvantage of the FMS is the high initial investment required.For this reason,it is of utmost importance for firms to ensure the economical justification to acquire these systems.The production scheduling problem is one of the main areas of research in the study of FMSs.The objective is to come up with the best production sequence for jobs by assigning the available resources within the existing constraints such that the desired performance of the system is maximized (Holthaus & Rajendran, 1997).Scheduling performance is usually evaluated based on certain criteria that can be classified in two general areas: meeting the due date of the ordered products and increasing the productivity of the system.In many situations, production scheduling is done through the use of dispatching rules due to their effectiveness and ease of use. Dispatching rules are predefined rules that prioritize the jobs waiting for processing. Many studies have shown that system performance varies to a great degree for different shop environments and thus no dispatching rule has been found to be optimal for all planning and scheduling problems (Montazeri & Van Wassenhove, 1990).Furthermore, the performance of scheduling rules depends on the performance criteria under consideration and also the arrangement of the production system.The body of literature in this area is sometimes contradictory since the experimental settings and assumptions of these studies are not the same.Consequently, for each FMS there has to be a separate scheduling study to find the best dispatching rule to accommodate the desired measure of performance.In this paper, we evaluate the performance of selected dispatching rules for different operations against different performance measures on an existing CIM facility using a simulation model.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.Section 2 provides a survey of the scheduling literature, their classification and the method used to address them with the main focus in the area of the priority dispatching rules. Section 3 provides an overview of the system used in the study, including its layout, control system, communication network and programming. The next section covers the design of experiments toevaluate the performance of the rules by using both a simulation model and the real system. Section 5 presents and discusses the results of the experiments for the simulation  model and the real system, and finally, the last section presents concluding remarks, the highlights of the research and recommendations for future research

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Analysis of medication delivery error

Modelling healthcare internal service supply chains for the analysis of medication delivery errors and amplification effects, In today’s global market, competition is ever increasing and companies are widely adopting customer-focused strategies in integrated-system approaches. Competition is no longer one company against other companies, but one supply chain against other supply chains. Supply chain management is a mechanism that will allow companies to respond to these environmental changes. It has become one of the top priorities on the strategic agenda of industrial and service businesses. Service supply chains should be managed differently, because they have the following characteristics not found in manufacturing supply chains:intangibility, heterogeneity, simultaneous production and consumption, and perishability (Zeithaml et al., 2009). Healthcare is an expensive, complex, universally used service that hugely affects economies and the quality of life (Berry & Bendapudi, 2007). The U.S., for example, was projected to spend more than $2 trillion (nearly $7,000 per person) on healthcare in 2006 and still only 44% of a national sample of Americans were satisfied with the quality of U.S. healthcare (Berry & Bendapudi, 2007). The healthcare industry in the U.S. accounts for 16 percent of GDP, whereas the European Union average is about 8% (Baltacioglu et al., 2007). There are several reasons for the growth of the healthcare industry. The most important one is decreasing fertility rates and increasing life expectancy. Several challenges like the complexity of processes, the need for efficient utilization of resources, the need to control the workload of the healthcare employees, and the public pressure on healthcare institutions to control costs while increasing the quality of services are involved with the healthcare industry (Baltacioglu et al., 2007). All these challenges prove the importance of supply chain management in healthcare organizations. Most of the discussions in literature focus on supply chain operations in the healthcare industry from a manufacturing viewpoint (Fineman & Kapadia, 1978; Bier, 1995; Rivard-Royer et al., 2002), but there are few discussions about applying service supply chain management principles to healthcare organizations. Baltacioglu et al. (2007) proposed a general supply chain model for services, which includes some managerial activities to be performed for effective management of service supply chains. These activities are demand management, capacity and resources management, customer relationship management, supplier relationship management, order process management, and service performance management. The proposed model is implemented for the healthcare industry. Medication delivery error is an important issue faced by healthcare systems or, more specifically, hospitals. Recently, medication errors have become so common in hospitals that the patients should expect to suffer at least one every day (Baker et al., 2002). In 2006, the Institute of Medicine estimated that medication-related errors harm approximately 1.5 million people in the U.S., costing the nation at least $3.5 billion annually. To help with these challenges, improving service supply chain for medication delivery processes in a hospital is very important. The medication preparation is usually done in the pharmacy of the hospital and then delivered to different departments of the hospital. So, analyzing the process of preparing drugs in the pharmacy of the hospital and measuring medication errors and wastes and trying to minimize them would have an important role in reducing the medication-related errors. Upstream amplification of inventory and demand in a supply chain has been a well-known phenomenon to supply chain managers for severaldecades. This phenomenon is called bullwhip effect in which fluctuations in orders increase as one moves up the supply chain from retailers to wholesalers to manufacturers and to suppliers. The evidence of bullwhip effect was first found by Forrester (1961) and was then demonstrated by Sterman (1989a, 1989b) based on the famous Beer Game, an experiment that includes a supply chain with four stages. Lee et al. (1997) suggested four root causes of amplification effects in inventory supply chains: demand signaling, batch ordering, price fluctuations and shortage gaming.

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Managing the IE Mindset

Managing the IE (Industrial Engineering) Mindset : A quantitative investigation of Toyota’s practical thinking shared among employees, oyota’s management system, more formally known as the Toyota Production System (TPS) is a modern technology aimed at reducing cost and eliminating waste. TPS, which is more commonly known as lean manufacturing, initially originated on the production floor, where several tools such as 5S, visual control and standardized work were created. Over the last decade,lean has grown from a manufacturing philosophy to a business strategy. Currently, companies all over the world are in a state of kaizen to modernize their accounting systems, design practices, maintenance areas and human resource functions to emulate their business systems like Toyota. While few researchers see gain in holding interest on a particular aspect of TPS, most consultants and authors actively seek new ways to apply lean in uncharted areas of the business. This craze to upload lean into all aspects of the business has weakened organizations mainly because practitioners insist on applying the manufacturing tools of lean (i.e. visual control, 5S, standardized work) rather than applying the thinking of lean.What is unique about Toyota’s system is not particularly any single piece of TPS, but how the pieces are combined to bring out something new, different and very difficult to imitate. So much work has been completed in examining and dissecting the parts of the Toyota Production System that little has been done to examine how the parts work together! It is argued in this work that Toyota’s management system is a richly interconnected set of parts and relationships that are more important than the nature of the parts themselves. This means that even if the parts themselves can be identified, their relations are often lost, which loses meaning of the system. It is believed that research in TPS must follow the same type of systems thinking to discover how TPS emerges from the way the parts are organized in the system. Holism, rather than reductionism can provide a more entire solution than a partial one.Historically, practitioners have been concerned about what Toyota is doing now rather than what was Toyota doing when TPS did not exist. Pioneers like Taiichi Ohno, the father of TPS and one of his close friends, Sheigo Shingo, an industrial engineering consultant to Toyota during the time, are less received and noted for developing TPS. In very simple terms, not to make TPS any morecomplicated than what it needs to be, TPS is an old way of thinking. In Ohno’s book(Ohno, 1988), named the Toyota Production System, Ohno firmly believed that TPS is simply a form of industrial engineering (IE) aimed at reducing cost through systematic study. By treating everything as a process, Ohno and Shingo built the interconnections of TPS one by one, but more importantly passed on this industrial engineering way of thinking to future generations. The purpose of this work is to evaluate and quantify some of Toyota’s thinking styles as it relates to Ohno’s traditional view of TPS. It is speculated that one of the ways Toyota is able to develop such a holistic approach to TPS is by passing down from generation to generation a type of thinking similar to industrial engineering. Managers throughout Toyota are believed to teach, share and develop this kaizen mind to encourage systematic study and evaluation of business practices. The secondary goal of this work is apply a new form of management science, named dimensional reduction analysis to highlight and quantify managerial preferences. This work is expected to substantiate quantitatively many of Toyota’s perceived industrial engineering practices, but also indicate the particular form. Meaning, most outsiders view lean as an extremely sophisticated form of industrial engineering mainly due to the influences of six sigma, lean sigma and now the popularized kaizen specialist. Due to these latest trends, one could dispute that the flavor of industrial engineering is very differentfrom Ohno’s more practical view of productivity improvement. This work is expected to bring insight and hopefully simplicity into understanding an old familiar way of thinking about problems from an industrial engineering viewpoint that acts as a catalystfor making the TPS system come alive.In this work the link will between TPS and IE will be established and analyzed to determine which trend of IE practices are utilized to maintain the TPS structure.

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Universal design of workplaces

Universal design of workplaces through the use of Poka-Yokes: Case study and implications, Work plays a central role in the majority of adult lives at many socioeconomic levels. It maintains income and contributes to individual identity and social status. There is emerging evidence that continuedparticipation in a work role has therapeutic benefits. From the point of view of employment, the term “disabled person” refers to those people whose opportunities to obtain and maintain a suitable job and to progress within that job are remarkably lower than the general population due to a mental or physical deficiency (Lopez Pino et al., 2005).Over the last three decades, the legal frameworks and regulations for the disabled have been significantly modified. Many governmentshave implemented policies aimed at promoting the right of the disabled to integrate as fully as possible into society. In this sense, social and employment integration of the disabled has received special attention in most international regulations, e.g. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Charter for the nineteen eighties from Rehabilitation International, the Program for Worldwide Action from the UN in 1988, or the European Social Charter in 1981.In view of the above, various attempts are being made to further the integration of these citizens in society. Several countries deal with this problem through different integration approaches and the awareness regarding this issue goes beyond the public and governmental spheres. Indeed, under the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), an increasing number of companies are becoming concerned with this matter (Kotler & Lee, 2005). Since 1990, Social Responsibility has found increasing interest in the literature. Although in certain forums there are doubts as to whether this boom is justa passing trend, certain indicators reveal that we are facing a real change of paradigm in which companies are seen as responsible for something more than merely obtaining maximum profit (Guthey et al., 2006). In this scenario, the employment of disabled workers is seenas a way of including the interests of society in the company goals. In fact, work in the competitive workforce may be a significant source of enhancing adaptive skills for people with disabilities and, thus, greatly adding to the success of community living and socio-labour integration (Stephens et al., 2005). In this sense, the second global report 2007 about Discrimination presented as part of the International Labour Organization Declaration relative to the fundamental workplace principles and rights (ILO 2007), suggests that governments and companies adopt non legislative regulations (not as social wellbeing policies, but as a question of human rights and social integration). Additionally Universal design of workplaces  proposes that the active policies, actions and programs about labour markets should combat the discrimination of workers with disabilities in three ways: (1) Via the formulation of policies and regulations against discrimination in the workplace; (2) Via an increase in the opportunities for people liable of being discriminated to find a job; (3) Via an improvement of the hiring procedures in public and private sectors (Miralles et al., 2010).But despite the great legislative efforts made bymultiple national and international institutions, total social-employment integration of people with disabilities still seems far away. This fact confirms the perception that the solution has to come not only from legal regulations via governmental measures, but also by overcoming the prejudices about the capabilities of the disabled, and by the genuine commitment of companies to include integration programs in their operation strategies and models. Furthermore, the incorporation of disabled people to many productive activities generates added value to a company, as well as society as a whole, which is particularly timely given the current pensions crisis and ageing population.

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Communication Skill

It is a common misconception that there are two types of skill communication, but that is not the case. The first type of skill communication is one in which the communicator expects that the receiver will provide feedback on his/her performance. This type of skill communication is often used when a person must provide feedback to another person about something such as their performance in a skill or sport. The other type of skill communication is one in which the receiver of the feedback expects the sender of the feedback to use a specific skill or strategy in response.

In order to understand the difference between these two types of skill communication, it is useful to consider an example. If an Olympic gold medalist wants to repeat his/her gold medal, but feels that he/she is losing out on the opportunity to win a fourth consecutive Olympic gold medal, the gold medalist will skillfully communicate with the silver medallist that they would like to receive a new medal but that they are not sure how to do so. In this example, the gold medalist communicates with the silver medallist a request for a new strategy. In this case, it is clear that the gold medalist is communicating with the silver medallist a request, but it is not clear from which strategy the silver medallist will respond.

Now consider the more general case. Consider the fact that an individual is applying for a job. In this case, the communication between the applicant and the employer would be one of the more direct forms of skill communication. Job candidates will skillfully convey to potential employers what they are looking for, why they are qualified for the job, and how they can best demonstrate their skills to help their chances of getting the job. This form of communication is almost always characterized by a message that offers a potential employer some kind of benefit in exchange for the applicant’s application.

However, sometimes it can be difficult to know where to begin in making skill communication. Often, skill communication takes place between individuals. Two friends might skillfully communicate with each other about their love of children, without necessarily offering any information that benefits the other person. This example shows how communication skills are related to the broader concept of interpersonal communication.

Another example might occur between two strangers. The stranger might skillfully communicate with the person making the comment. This communication might even involve the stranger offering helpful advice. However, if the strangers do not socially interact with one another, their ability to communicate would probably be limited. The more isolated they become, the more likely it is that they will lack in the ability to skill communication in social settings. They would also lack in the ability to take advantage of opportunities in those situations.

Skill communication can be complicated. It can be easy to get tripped up in the fine print. People who are trying to improve their skill communication might make the mistake of assuming that they know what is communicated. If they take the time to really learn about the issue, they might be able to avoid making mistakes in the future.

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